13 unstable releases (3 breaking)

0.4.0 Jul 30, 2018
0.2.7 May 17, 2018
0.2.5 Feb 21, 2018
0.2.3 Nov 27, 2017
0.1.0 Jul 23, 2017

#17 in FFI

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PyO3

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Rust bindings for Python. This includes running and interacting with python code from a rust binaries as well as writing native python modules.

A comparison with rust-cpython can be found in the guide.

Usage

Pyo3 supports python 2.7 as well as python 3.5 and up. The minimum required rust version is 1.29.0-nightly 2018-07-16.

You can either write a native python module in rust or use python from a rust binary.

Using rust from python

Pyo3 can be used to generate a native python module.

Cargo.toml:

[package]
name = "rust-py"
version = "0.1.0"

[lib]
name = "rust_py"
crate-type = ["cdylib"]

[dependencies.pyo3]
version = "0.3"
features = ["extension-module"]

src/lib.rs

#![feature(use_extern_macros, specialization)]

#[macro_use]
extern crate pyo3;

use pyo3::prelude::*;

#[pyfunction]
/// Formats the sum of two numbers as string
fn sum_as_string(a: usize, b: usize) -> PyResult<String> {
    Ok((a + b).to_string())
}

/// This module is a python moudle implemented in Rust.
#[pymodinit]
fn rust_py(py: Python, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    m.add_function(wrap_function!(sum_as_string))?;

    Ok(())
}

On windows and linux, you can build normally with cargo build --release. On Mac Os, you need to set additional linker arguments. One option is to compile with cargo rustc --release -- -C link-arg=-undefined -C link-arg=dynamic_lookup, the other is to create a .cargo/config with the following content:

[target.x86_64-apple-darwin]
rustflags = [
  "-C", "link-arg=-undefined",
  "-C", "link-arg=dynamic_lookup",
]

Also on macOS, you will need to rename the output from *.dylib to *.so. On Windows, you will need to rename the output from *.dll to *.pyd.

setuptools-rust can be used to generate a python package and includes the commands above by default. See examples/word-count and the associated setup.py.

Using python from rust

Add pyo3 this to your Cargo.toml:

[dependencies]
pyo3 = "0.3"

Example program displaying the value of sys.version:

#![feature(use_extern_macros, specialization)]

extern crate pyo3;

use pyo3::prelude::*;

fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    let gil = Python::acquire_gil();
    let py = gil.python();
    let sys = py.import("sys")?;
    let version: String = sys.get("version")?.extract()?;

    let locals = PyDict::new(py);
    locals.set_item("os", py.import("os")?)?;
    let user: String = py.eval("os.getenv('USER') or os.getenv('USERNAME')", None, Some(&locals))?.extract()?;

    println!("Hello {}, I'm Python {}", user, version);
    Ok(())
}

Examples and tooling

License

PyO3 is licensed under the Apache-2.0 license. Python is licensed under the Python License.

Apache-2.0 license

Dependencies

Reverse deps