18 unstable releases (3 breaking)
|0.7.2||Aug 18, 2018|
|0.7.0||Jul 19, 2018|
|0.4.0||Mar 31, 2018|
#13 in Cryptocurrencies
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Solana™ is a new blockchain architecture built from the ground up for scale. The architecture supports up to 710 thousand transactions per second on a gigabit network.
All claims, content, designs, algorithms, estimates, roadmaps, specifications, and performance measurements described in this project are done with the author's best effort. It is up to the reader to check and validate their accuracy and truthfulness. Furthermore nothing in this project constitutes a solicitation for investment.
It's possible for a centralized database to process 710,000 transactions per second on a standard gigabit network if the transactions are, on average, no more than 176 bytes. A centralized database can also replicate itself and maintain high availability without significantly compromising that transaction rate using the distributed system technique known as Optimistic Concurrency Control [H.T.Kung, J.T.Robinson (1981)]. At Solana, we're demonstrating that these same theoretical limits apply just as well to blockchain on an adversarial network. The key ingredient? Finding a way to share time when nodes can't trust one-another. Once nodes can trust time, suddenly ~40 years of distributed systems research becomes applicable to blockchain! Furthermore, and much to our surprise, it can implemented using a mechanism that has existed in Bitcoin since day one. The Bitcoin feature is called nLocktime and it can be used to postdate transactions using block height instead of a timestamp. As a Bitcoin client, you'd use block height instead of a timestamp if you don't trust the network. Block height turns out to be an instance of what's being called a Verifiable Delay Function in cryptography circles. It's a cryptographically secure way to say time has passed. In Solana, we use a far more granular verifiable delay function, a SHA 256 hash chain, to checkpoint the ledger and coordinate consensus. With it, we implement Optimistic Concurrency Control and are now well in route towards that theoretical limit of 710,000 transactions per second.
The Solana repo contains all the scripts you might need to spin up your own local testnet. Depending on what you're looking to achieve, you may want to run a different variation, as the full-fledged, performance-enhanced multinode testnet is considerably more complex to set up than a Rust-only, singlenode testnode. If you are looking to develop high-level features, such as experimenting with smart contracts, save yourself some setup headaches and stick to the Rust-only singlenode demo. If you're doing performance optimization of the transaction pipeline, consider the enhanced singlenode demo. If you're doing consensus work, you'll need at least a Rust-only multinode demo. If you want to reproduce our TPS metrics, run the enhanced multinode demo.
For all four variations, you'd need the latest Rust toolchain and the Solana source code:
First, install Rust's package manager Cargo.
$ curl https://sh.rustup.rs -sSf | sh $ source $HOME/.cargo/env
Now checkout the code from github:
$ git clone https://github.com/solana-labs/solana.git $ cd solana
The demo code is sometimes broken between releases as we add new low-level features, so if this is your first time running the demo, you'll improve your odds of success if you check out the latest release before proceeding:
$ git checkout v0.7.0-beta
The network is initialized with a genesis ledger and leader/validator configuration files. These files can be generated by running the following script.
In order for the leader, client and validators to work, we'll need to spin up a drone to give out some test tokens. The drone delivers Milton Friedman-style "air drops" (free tokens to requesting clients) to be used in test transactions.
Start the drone on the leader node with:
Before you start a fullnode, make sure you know the IP address of the machine you want to be the leader for the demo, and make sure that udp ports 8000-10000 are open on all the machines you want to test with.
Now start the server:
Wait a few seconds for the server to initialize. It will print "Ready." when it's ready to receive transactions. The leader will request some tokens from the drone if it doesn't have any. The drone does not need to be running for subsequent leader starts.
To run a multinode testnet, after starting a leader node, spin up some validator nodes:
$ ./multinode-demo/validator.sh firstname.lastname@example.org:~/solana 10.0.1.51
To run a performance-enhanced leader or validator (on Linux), CUDA 9.2 must be installed on your system:
$ ./fetch-perf-libs.sh $ SOLANA_CUDA=1 ./multinode-demo/leader.sh $ SOLANA_CUDA=1 ./multinode-demo/validator.sh email@example.com:~/solana 10.0.1.51
Now that your singlenode or multinode testnet is up and running, in a separate shell, let's send it some transactions! Note we pass in the JSON configuration file here, not the genesis ledger.
$ ./multinode-demo/client.sh firstname.lastname@example.org:~/solana 2 #The leader machine and the total number of nodes in the network
What just happened? The client demo spins up several threads to send 500,000 transactions to the testnet as quickly as it can. The client then pings the testnet periodically to see how many transactions it processed in that time. Take note that the demo intentionally floods the network with UDP packets, such that the network will almost certainly drop a bunch of them. This ensures the testnet has an opportunity to reach 710k TPS. The client demo completes after it has convinced itself the testnet won't process any additional transactions. You should see several TPS measurements printed to the screen. In the multinode variation, you'll see TPS measurements for each validator node as well.
A Linux Snap is available, which can be used to
easily get Solana running on supported Linux systems without building anything
from source. The
edge Snap channel is updated daily with the latest
development from the
master branch. To install:
$ sudo snap install solana --edge --devmode
--devmode flag is required only for
Once installed the usual Solana programs will be available as
solana-*. For example,
solana.fullnode instead of
Update to the latest version at any time with:
$ snap info solana $ sudo snap refresh solana --devmode
The snap supports running a leader, validator or leader+drone node as a system daemon.
sudo snap get solana to view the current daemon configuration. To view
sudo snap logs -n=all solanato view the daemon initialization log
- Runtime logging can be found under
/var/snap/solana/current/drone/depending on which
mode=was selected. Within each log directory the file
currentcontains the latest log, and the files
*.s(if present) contain older rotated logs.
Disable the daemon at any time by running:
$ sudo snap set solana mode=
Runtime configuration files for the daemon can be found in
$ sudo snap set solana mode=leader
If CUDA is available:
$ sudo snap set solana mode=leader enable-cuda=1
rsync must be configured and running on the leader.
- Ensure rsync is installed with
sudo apt-get -y install rsync
/etc/rsyncd.confto include the following
[config] path = /var/snap/solana/current/config hosts allow = * read only = true
sudo systemctl enable rsync; sudo systemctl start rsync
- Test by running
rsync -Pzravv rsync://<ip-address-of-leader>/config solana-configfrom another machine. If the leader is running on a cloud provider it may be necessary to configure the Firewall rules to permit ingress to port tcp:873, tcp:9900 and the port range udp:8000-udp:10000
To run both the Leader and Drone:
$ sudo snap set solana mode=leader+drone
$ sudo snap set solana mode=validator
If CUDA is available:
$ sudo snap set solana mode=validator enable-cuda=1
By default the validator will connect to testnet.solana.com, override the leader IP address by running:
$ sudo snap set solana mode=validator leader-address=127.0.0.1 #<-- change IP address
It's assumed that the leader will be running
rsync configured as described in
the previous Leader daemon section.
Install rustc, cargo and rustfmt:
$ curl https://sh.rustup.rs -sSf | sh $ source $HOME/.cargo/env $ rustup component add rustfmt-preview
If your rustc version is lower than 1.26.1, please update it:
$ rustup update
On Linux systems you may need to install libssl-dev and pkg-config. On Ubuntu:
$ sudo apt-get install libssl-dev pkg-config
Download the source code:
$ git clone https://github.com/solana-labs/solana.git $ cd solana
Run the test suite:
$ cargo test
To emulate all the tests that will run on a Pull Request, run:
There are some useful debug messages in the code, you can enable them on a per-module and per-level basis with the normal RUST_LOG environment variable. Run the fullnode with this syntax:
$ RUST_LOG=solana::streamer=debug,solana::server=info cat genesis.log | ./target/release/solana-fullnode > transactions0.log
to see the debug and info sections for streamer and server respectively. Generally we are using debug for infrequent debug messages, trace for potentially frequent messages and info for performance-related logging.
Attaching to a running process with gdb:
$ sudo gdb attach <PID> set logging on thread apply all bt
This will dump all the threads stack traces into gdb.txt
First install the nightly build of rustc.
cargo bench requires unstable features:
$ rustup install nightly
Run the benchmarks:
$ cargo +nightly bench --features="unstable"
To generate code coverage statistics, install cargo-cov. Note: the tool currently only works in Rust nightly.
$ cargo +nightly install cargo-cov
Run cargo-cov and generate a report:
$ cargo +nightly cov test $ cargo +nightly cov report --open
The coverage report will be written to
Why coverage? While most see coverage as a code quality metric, we see it primarily as a developer productivity metric. When a developer makes a change to the codebase, presumably it's a solution to some problem. Our unit-test suite is how we encode the set of problems the codebase solves. Running the test suite should indicate that your change didn't infringe on anyone else's solutions. Adding a test protects your solution from future changes. Say you don't understand why a line of code exists, try deleting it and running the unit-tests. The nearest test failure should tell you what problem was solved by that code. If no test fails, go ahead and submit a Pull Request that asks, "what problem is solved by this code?" On the other hand, if a test does fail and you can think of a better way to solve the same problem, a Pull Request with your solution would most certainly be welcome! Likewise, if rewriting a test can better communicate what code it's protecting, please send us that patch!
- atty 0.2
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- pnet_datalink 0.21
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- rayon 1.0
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- serde 1.0
- serde_derive 1.0
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- tokio 0.1
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- untrusted 0.6.2
- dev criterion 0.2